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St. George’s, Gloucestershire – Bristol directory 1871
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St. George’s, Gloucestershire – Bristol directory 1871
ADJACENT VILLAGES ON THE GLOUCESTERSHIRE SIDE OF BRISTOL
Mathews’ Bristol Street Directory 1871
St George was originally in Gloucestershire. It became a civil parish (formally known as Bristol St George) in 1866, and briefly an urban district from 1894 to 1898. The parish and urban district were absorbed into Bristol in 1898.
The area was once the end of the tram line from the city of Bristol, the terminus being in Beaconsfield Road.
St. George was once a mining area but now only pit names remain to remind everyone of this district’s mining history, i.e., Deep Pit Road.
John Armitstead well known as a coal adventurer — a colliery proprietor had a pit between Church Road and Whitehall Road, St George where he installed a pumping engine for raising coal. Power was generated from water by means of a fire and ergo the device was called a Fire-engine. It stood on Colt’s or Boulter’s Ground but the land came to be known as the Engine Ground. To this day, a pub in the area is called the Fire Engine.
The former south Gloucestershire parish of St George was in the eastern part of the out-parish of St. Philip & Jacob, Bristol until 1751, when the ecclesiastical parish was created. The civil parish formed in 1784, comprised of what are now the east Bristol suburbs of Crews Hole, Crofts End, Greenbank, Lower Easton, Moorfields, Redfield, St George, Speedwell, Two Mile Hill, Whitehall, and White’s Hill. It bounded on the north by the parish of Stapleton, on the east by the former chapelries/tithings of Oldland and Hanham Abbots both in the parish of Bitton, and the west by the out-parish of St Philip & Jacob, Bristol. The river Avon marks the southern boundary and the old division between the counties of Gloucestershire and Somerset.
The parish was once covered by the Royal Forest of Kingswood. It started to be cleared for agriculture from the 13th century. The forest was progressively reduced and developed over the centuries. The area first came into industrial prominence in the late 17th century, because of coal mining. The first new church, later to become the parish church of St. George, was built in the mid 18th century to serve the growing number of coalminers who had moved to the area for work. Non-conformist religion first came through the preaching of George WHITFIELD in 1739, followed by John Wesley. The bishop of Bristol, Bishop BUTLER, concerned about the lack of Anglican care, offered £400 towards the endowment of a new church. An Act of 1751 divided the parish of St Philip & Jacob, and Thomas Chester gave the piece of ground for the church, churchyard and parsonage.
The foundation stone was laid in 1752 by David PELOQUIN, Lord Mayor of Bristol, but was not completed until 1756 when it was consecrated by Bishop Butler’s succeor Bishop HUME. The church gave its name to the surrounding area.
The growing population in the 19th and 20th centuries led to the provision of eight new churches built across the parish: St Marks, Lower Easton (1848); St Michaels, Two Mile Hill (1848), St Matthews, Moorfields (1873), St Aidan, White’s Hill (1883), St Anne, Greenbank (1900), All Hallows, Easton (1901), St Ambrose, Whitehall (1905) and St Leonards, Redfield (1908). Avonview Cemetery, created on the site of Mugland Farm and opened in 1883, was an extensive burial place for the whole parish. The city boundary was not extended until 1897, but as early as 1874 the St George Local Board was created.
St George area grew from the hamlet of Don Johns Cross and around the church adjacent to the main road junction, which forks at this point to Kingswood and Hanhan. A poorhouse was built in 1801 in the western end of Hudds Vale Road. It was later taken over by the Clifton Poor Law Union for housing pauper children until 1869, when it then began to be used for a number of industrial purposes, and was recently converted to apartments. The church was rebuilt in 1846, and again in impressive style with a west tower in 1880 following a fire.
The two industrialists, William BUTLER and Handel COSSHAM, contributed much of their wealth, energy and entrepreneurial skills to the building of the St George community. Butler was instrumental informing the local board and was also the first chairman of the Bristol Tramways Co., whose services were to have a profound effect on the development of the area as well as Moorfields and Redfield. A horse-drawn line from central Bristol had been extended to the depot in Beaconsfield Road by 1876, but of much greater significance for St George and for the UK was the pioneering use of electricity in 1895. Initially, this was provided by a new power station at the depot.
The Victorian drinking fountain, which is in the road junction, was BUTLER’s gift of 1896. COSSHAM was elected as the first MP for Bristol East in 1885 and was a champion of mass education and advocate for a local park. St George Park was eventually laid out after his death on 38-acre land of Fire Engine Farm in 1894, the year the architecturally impressive St George Higher Grade (later St George Grammar School and now a Sikh Temple) was opened. He also bequeathed his coal mine interests to be sold, the proceeds to go to build a hospital for the people of East Bristol. Cossham Hospital was built in 1907 in Lodge Hill, outside the parish boundary towards Fishponds. BUTLER and COSSHAM are buried in Avonview Cemetery in the community that they did much to shape.
The success of the electric tramway, extended to Kingswood in 1895 and Hanham in 1900, encouraged the development of streets of terraced houses off the main roads eastwards from the road junction – Clouds Hill Road, Bell Hill Road and Summerhill Road. Boot and shoe and corset manufacturers were attracted to these newly accessible spaces. St. George Police Station in Church Road, with Fire Station behind in Northcote Road, both of which are no longer in use, were converted to private flats. Opposite the police station, there is a block of modern flats and on this site used to be The Park Picture House. This was a great favourite with children who used to attend the nine-penny rush on a Saturday morning and they always left desperate not to miss the following week as the final picture was always a serial, which had left the hero strapped to a train track or dangling over some life threatening piece of machinery.
St George Public Library is a prefabricated style building which replaced the previous stone built building, demolished when it was fashionable to pull down older buildings. For over a century, the focal point of the area has been St George Park, East Bristol’s playground, and the fairs in the park were always recalled with particular fondness.
Redfield is an area to the west of St George. From the 1870s onwards there was steady drift away from market gardening in the area. The landowners moved out, selling their land to speculative builders, eager to satisfy the increasing demand for houses. Plots of land were disposed of gradually as the landowners’ estates were whittled down. Church Road was part of Bristol’s eastern urban shopping line: the ‘golden miles’ of shops stretching from the city to St George. Many people will remember those vibrant shops, such as Gwillams and David Greigs. Bristol’s oldest Tesco at Redfield has been a local landmark since 1967.
Moorfields, an area to the west of Redfield, is not a name commonly used today. Historically there are two angles. Firstly, the huddle of basic early 19th century dwellings erected by Solomon MOORE, centred around Moorfields Square and adjacent to the main Church Road. These were demolished in 1930. Secondly, the 1870s Moorfields estate, the hundreds of houses in uniform terraces, which revolved around Dean Lane (now Russell Town Avenue), with its imposing school, corner shops, off-licences and mission halls, this very working class area survived as a distinct community until redevelopment came in the 1950s and 60s.
Whitehall is an area to the north-west of St George. From the description of Easton Colliery in ‘Bristol Times & Mirror’ dated 1883, it appears that, by this time at least, the workings of the Easton & Whitehall pits are connected by an underground roadway two-third mile long. Towards the Whitehall shaft there were two 30 horsepower engines in an underground engine-house, 380 yards below the surface. The engines were used for pulling wagons up inclines. There are still many streets and houses from the Victorian and Edwardian eras and in the part is the Gordon Estate with houses that were built in 1936.
This area originally consisted of market gardens and the new estate was built on the rhubarb patch and as a result, rhubarb was quite commonplace in many gardens. Some houses ("villas") overlook the adjoining St. George Park and these have small balconies. Newer houses have since been built on the former Co-op Bakery and Rose Green High School sites. There is a plaque on the original school wall, which was retained, giving some history, about John WESLEY having preached on this site. Whitehall Zion Methodist Chapel is now in use as offices. The Kings Head public house has long been part of the Whitehall scene and was originally owned by the PARSONS family. There were stables attached as dray horses from George’s Brewery were quite a common site on Bristol roads. In the north-western end of Whitehall, here was the Midland Railway line (now a cycle path), behind of which are the other suburbs of Lower Easton and Greenbank.
Lower Easton became a densely populated suburb by the end of 19th century. The LEONARD family were large landowners or tenants who, in 1842 at the time of the St. George Tithe map, were holding 72 acres of land. They were buying mining rights on all available land and were involved in Easton Colliery. Some members of the family were engaged in market gardening, and at one time were working land where St. Mark’s Church was consecrated in 1848. Being largely open fields and market gardens, its population then was only about 2000. The rest of Easton including Upper Easton and the Easton Colliery is in the parish of St Philip & Jacob.
Greenbank is a mainly early 1900s terraced housing area. Greenbank Cemetery was laid out in 1871, but it served for the parish of St Philip & Jacob. Packer’s chocolate firm bought land at Greenbank and built a three-block factory. Steam engines were operating there in 1901 and production moved from St Paul’s to Greenbank in 1902. It continued Bristol’s chocolate-making tradition by making chocolate products under the name of Elizabeth Shaw until it closed down in 2006.
Crofts End (also known as Clay Hill) is an industrialised area to the north of St George, and in between Whitehall and Speedwell, with many small Victorian houses, built when this area was a coal mining community. Crofts End Mission was established in 1895 by George Brown, as a Christian work for miner’s children in The Freestone Rank, Whitehall Road, and it became known as The Miner’s Mission. It is now part of the local and much wider community but still very much a family church.
The church was built on a site bounded by market gardens, a brick works and Deep Pit Colliery, which was over 1200 feet deep. The Beaufort Arms, then known as The Beatem and Wackem and now called The Wackum Inn was the place where most miners spent their hard earned wages! Another local chapel was Clay Hill Chapel which was demolished when the industrial estates were built. Over many years, the Market Gardens became housing, White’s Brick Works became Somers Wood Yard (now an industrial pallet site) – where many older people will remember going as children to collect a sack or trolley full of firewood – and Deep Pit Colliery became industrial estates.
When Deep Pit closed, men were having to walk underground as far as Frenchay to reach the coal face! Crofts End House, located at the junction of Plummer’s Hill and Whitehall Avenue, still exists, but no longer as a single dwelling. The area is now undergoing more change as the majority of ‘prefabs’ (built by American Servicemen as post war housing) in the locality have recently been demolished. Planning applications will replace these with mixed style housing. The old, redundant Civil Defence building on the junction of Crofts End Road and Brook Road was demolished and flats were built on the site, now named "Craftes Court".
Speedwell is an area to the north-east of St George. Extraction of coal began in the area in the early 18th century. There were two mines – the Speedwell Pit (then known as the Starveall Pit) and Belgium Pit, the latter of which was closed by 1902 after a short life of twenty years. Both mines and Deep Pit were linked on the surface by a mineral railway, with the Midland Railway. The rest of Speedwell at that time consisted of mixture of arable and pastureland. The three main farms were Speedwell Farm, Crofts End Farm and Holly Bush Farm.
The mines began to reach their full potential when they came into the ownership of Handel Cossham in 1875. He introduced machinery worked by compressed air and within 50 years the supposedly exhausted pits were producing 210,000 tons of coal annually. Rows of cottages were built near pits to house the miners, many of which are still standing to this day. The Bristol house-building boom in late Victorian times fuelled the expansion of the second most important industry – brick and tile making. The three principal makers were the Bristol Brick & Tile Works, Fussell’s Brick & Tile Works and Hollybrook Brick Works.
After the First World War, the council embarked on an ambitious project to build several estates of council houses in Bristol. One of these was established at Speedwell on land that had previously formed part of Speedwell Farm. In the 1920s, thirty three acres of land was acquried from various landowners and streets of well-built council houses appeared. However, all was not well with local mining industry, as in 1933 the people of Bristol contributed £3000 towards new borings to prevent the entire clousre of the pits and the loss of 2000 jobs. Two new tunnels were driven. However, it was not enough; the East Bristol Colliery Company lost a further £20,000, and in 1936 the last load of coal was brought to the surface. The Speedwell housing estate was further expanded before and after the last war. Other facilities such as shops, the swimming baths, the clinic and school were built. The old colliery buildings disappeared for the construction of the new fire station and private housing was also built.
The brick-making fared much better and survived into the early 1960s. Today Speedwell is a mainly residential area. The old brick-making quarries have been filled in to provide much-needed playing fields.
Netham was an east Bristol industrial giant area to the south-west of St George. The Netham chemical works dominated the approach into Crews Hole. Evolving from the 1860s, there were monumental chimneys towering over a jumble of assorted structures, including furnaces and steam cranes. It boasted an elaborate light railway network, which served a vast sprawling waste tip that stretched west to Barton Hill. To the south the Feeder Canal and the River Avon were vital to the operation. Two groups of men, the ‘process workers’ and the ‘yard men’ toiled in this huge, dark labyrinth of a works. In 1949, the plant closed down, and since then, the whole site was transformed to a public park.
Crews Hole is located to the south of St George. From the early 18th century it was an industrial area including oil refineries and a tar works site at the bottom of Troopers Hill. The tar works was established by Isambard Kingdom Brunel in 1843 to provide creosote to be used as a preservative for railway sleepers and by 1863 had passed into the ownership of his manager, William Butler. It continued to operate until 1981. Troopers Hill is a local landmark, and was a mining area from the early 19th century until its closure in 1904 when the last fireclay mines were abandoned. It was declared as a Local Nature Reserve in 1995.
Local tradition has it that the Parliamentary army, under the command of Sir Thomas Fairfax, camped on Troopers Hill prior to the siege of Bristol in 1645. It has also been suggested that the ditch between the hill and the allotments was dug at this time as a defensive earthworks. It is known that the army approached Bristol via Keynsham and Hanham and it is possible therefore that Troopers Hill, with its views of the city, was used while the army was headquartered at Hanham.
In Victorian times, Crews Hole was compared to the north Devon village of Covelly, as both were steep, with ranks of cottages that tumble down lanes and narrows roads to waterfront. Today, original cottages co-exist with the ‘Quayside Village’, built on the tar works site. Although the heavy industry has gone, along with many buildings, the countryside character and narrow lanes of Crews Hole remain.
Two Mile Hill is an area to the east of St George. The land was chiefly set out in freeholds of an acre or more, and appropriated to market gardening; a portion was in small grazing-farms. Coalmines were wrought; and there was a pin-factory set up in early 1830s by Robert CHARLTON, a Quaker. He built a school for his workers and their families, the only factory school in the district. The church of St Michael the Archangel was consecrated in 1848. With the extension of the electric tramway to Kingswood in 1895, the area was boosted with the developments of streets of terraced houses off the main road.
White’s Hill is an area to the south-east of St George. With the extension of the electric tramway to Hanham in 1900, rows of terraced houses were built alongside the main road – Air Balloon Road, Nags Head Hill and Bryant’s Hill. St Aidan’s Church was built in 1904 on the top of Nags Head Hill to replace the iron church built in 1883 and situated in Casseybottom Lane. In the 1920s, the area was still mainly consisted of farms, old quarry workings, allotment gardens and maze of quaintly named footpaths and fields. Many houses were subsequently built in the period before the Second World War. Nurseries, glasshouses, and cottages vanished in the process.
Pile Marsh small village of Pyle Marsh, just to the East of Bristol (now part of Bristol’s urban sprawl known as Pile Marsh) near the Netham.
By the end of the 20th century, a decrease in religiosity in most areas meant that the three churches were redundant. Also many chapels have been demolished and a number have changed use. Sadly, St George church was closed as a dangerous structure and demolished in 1976. Sheltered housing has been built on the site. Its next door, the Sunday School, was adapted into a church for several years, then derelict until converted into flats in 2000-01. St Mark’s Church in Lower Easton was converted to flats, and St Matthews, Moorfields to apartments and offices. Many Anglican and non-conformists registers are kept at the Bristol Record Office.
Bath Road, (Upper) Etc. St. George’s
Allaway T. grocer
Andrews Richard, vict, Pack Horse Inn
Aplin Thomas, tailor, Moorﬁelds
Ayers Nathaniel, Nag’s Head Hill www.flickr.com/photos/20654194@N07/2039524525/
Bacon J. marine store dealer
Ball William, beer retailer
Barnes H. boot and shoe maker
Barratt Daniel, grocer
Barratt W. marine store dealer
Bateman Elizabeth, draper and grocer
Bateman Joseph, painter and grocer
Bateman Joseph, grocer
Bateman W. F. hay dealer, Bell Hill
Batt S. beer retailer and grocer
Beak John, vict, The Bell, Bell Hill bristolslostpubs.eu/page137.html
Beak William, Bell Hill
Bevan Samuel, boot maker
Bence Mrs. butcher
Bird Isaac, grocer
Bird Robert, Summer Hill
Bevan Samuel, beet and shoe maker
Bisp Joseph, butcher
Bisp Thomas, vict, Cherry Orchard
Bone James, vict, Sugar Loaf
Brain Samuel, grocer, Bell Hill www.flickr.com/photos/20654194@N07/4178172135/
Brice George, boot and shoe maker
Bristol Wagon Works Co. Limited – Albert Fry, managing director www.flickr.com/photos/20654194@N07/2040539380/
Broster Alfred, surgeon, Moorﬁelds www.flickr.com/photos/20654194@N07/2115034594/
Brown Mrs. Myrtle house, Redﬁeld
Brown Joseph, grocer
Brown John, market gardener
Brown Thomas, market gardener, Barton Hill
Brown W. C. builder, George Lane
Britten Isaac, boot and shoemaker
Bruton Alfred, vict, Ship inn, World’s End
Bryan William, boot maker
Bryant J. vict, Don John’s Cross www.flickr.com/photos/20654194@N07/2040321116/
Bryant Francis, beer retailer
Bryant Samuel, grocer
Bryant William, butcher
Burley Creorge, market gardener
Burley Thomas, beer retailer, Upper Easton
Burley Joseph, market gardener
Burrows William, horse dealer and beer retailer, Pile Marsh
Bush S. T. vict, Lord Raglan
Butler and Co. oil and resin distillers, Crews Hole www.flickr.com/photos/20654194@N07/2059289321/
Butler Mrs. Upper Easton
Butler W. Summerhill House
Chapman Cr. plasterer & paperhanger, Moorﬁelds
Chappell James, basket maker, Whitehall
Churchill Christopher, farmer
Clarke Charles J. boot and shoe manufacturer
Clement Isaac, beer retailer, Whitehall
Colborn Joseph, Bryant’s Hill
Cook J. market gardener, Whitehall
Cooper Rev. David, M.A., Holy Trinity, Bristol
Cottle G. tiler and slater, Bell Hill
Cottle Henry, grease reﬁner
Cousins Francis, grocer
Cousins William, market gardener, Claybottom
Cousins S. farmer, Upper Bath Road
Cousins James, market gardener, Clay Hill
Coussens Samuel, St. George’s
Cowley W. ironmonger, Lower Easton
Cox John, Kingscote house, Upper Bath road
Cox Mrs. Upper Easton
Cox Richard, farmer, Pile Marsh
Cox William, Upper Bath road
Crates John, plumber, etc
Cridland Luke, grocer
Curry Josiah, Upper Easton
Denning H. pork butcher
Davis Isaac, carpenter and butcher
Davis John, grocer, Bell Hill
Davis Thomas, surgeon
Deacon William, brickmaker, Pile Marsh
Dean J. corn and ﬂour factor
Doggett J., grocer
Douglas William, Bell Hill
Dowswell A. vict, King’s Arms
Earl D. shoe maker
Edwards T. grocer, near the church
Ellis John, potter, Old Workhouse www.flickr.com/photos/20654194@N07/5918909459/
Evans P. S. and Co. Avonside tannery
Farley Sarah, beer retailer
Ferris John, Moorﬁelds
Flemming J., furniture broker
Flook A. builder & undertaker, oil & colourman, Post Office
Flook Jacob, market gardener, Whitehall
Flook Jacob, market gardener, Holmes
Follett Mary, shopkeeper, Russell Town
Foreman Mary A. vict, The Ship, Dundridge
Fox, Walker, & Co. Engineers & Locomotive builders, Atlas Iron Works www.flickr.com/photos/20654194@N07/4449742831/
Fray Samuel, market gardener, Croft’s End
Fry Cree. market gardener, Pile Marsh
Fry Cr. barge owner, Crews Hole www.flickr.com/photos/20654194@N07/2130713592/
Fudge Isaac, beer retailer, Upper Easton
Fuge William, market gardener, White’s Hill
Fussell Henry, horse dealer, Bell Hill
Gardiner Alfred, match manufacturer, Crews Hole www.flickr.com/photos/20654194@N07/9636108506/
Gare John, chemist, Redﬁeld
Gay George, horse dealer, Upper Easton
Gerrish Mrs. market gardener, Whitehall
Gerrish John, Summerhill
Gill John, shoemaker
Gilpin T. grocer, Upper Easton
Golding Isaac, grocer, Upper Easton
Gough Alfred, brick and tile maker, Upper Easton
Green W. J. baker & grocer, Nag’s Head Hill
Griffiths S. E. timber merchant
Griffiths S. E. cabinet maker & grocer
Grigg Rev. T. N., B.A. vicar
Grigg Robert, baker, Russell Town
Guest Abraham, grocer
Guest Mary, green grocer
Hale John, boot and shoe maker
Harris Capt. P. Prospect house, Whitehall
Harvey George, beer retailer, Redﬁeld
Harvey Henry William, blacksmith
Harvey Abraham, Upper Bath road
Hasell B. H. market gardener, Whitehall
Hasell G. T. market gardener, Barton Hill
Hawkins Mrs. milliner
Headford Mrs. brick & tile maker, Upper Easton
Hemming Robert, beer retailer
Herring & Co. Wainbrook Iron works, Moorﬁelds
Hickory Jonathan, grocer, Upper Easton
Hicks William, stone quarry master
Hicks Francis, Bell Hill
Hill George, grocer
Hill George, cooper, Redﬁeld
Hitchcock William, Alexandria house, White’s Hill
Hobbs Thomas and George, carpenters, Lower Easton
Hodge Henry, beer retailer, Bryant’s Hill
Hodge S. tailor, Moorﬁelds
Hollister William, beer retailer
Holloway John, rope and twine maker, Lower Easton
Hopkins John, market gardener, Upper Bath road
Howell D. J. butcher
Hulbert T. grocer and broker
Hunter and Co. nurserymen & florists, Brook road nursery
Hunt J . H. market gardener, Lower Easton
Hunt Richard, Upper Easton
Iles S. coachmaker & wheelwright, Redﬁeld
Iles Samuel, beer retailer, Upper Easton
Johnson David, painter, Lippiatt Lane
Johnson George, market gardener, Whitehall
Johnson John, market gardener
Johnson W. ﬁle and rasp manufacturer
Kellaway S. carpenter, Redﬁeld
Kingswood Coal Co. (Limited), Mr. Henshaw, manager
Knight J. baker, Adelaide Place
Lang Thomas, Barton Hill
Lanham Elizabeth, greengrocer
Lawrence W. Scott, stone quarry master, Crews Hole
Leonard, Boult, and Co. coalmasters, Easton and Whitehall Pits www.flickr.com/photos/20654194@N07/4064057979/
Leonard Isaac, market gardener, Whitehall
Leonard John, market gardener, Pile Marsh
Leonard John R. market gardener, Whitehall
Leonard S. greengrocer, Redﬁeld
Leonard Samuel, ﬁshmonger
Leonard Sarah, beer retailer
Lewis A. plasterer and tiler
Litchﬁeld W. chemist
Lock Edward, beer retailer
Luscombe W. tailor
Maggs J. vict, Waggon and Horses
Maggs Joseph, market gardener, Claybottom
Marks Miss, Upper Easton
Martin William Prosser
Milsom H. beer retailer, Adelaide Place
Milsom M. haulier, London road
Milsom T. grocer, Adelaide Place
Monk W. Bolt, mining engineer, Lower Easton
More J . baker, Moorﬁelds
Morgan Ann, vict, George and Dragon, Redﬁeld
Netham Chemical Co. Limited, Philip J. Worsley, manager www.flickr.com/photos/20654194@N07/3281488322/
Nicholls H. grocer, Upper Bath road
Nurse W. vict, Pied Horse, Upper Bath road
Olds William, basket maker
Osborne William, vict, Three Crowns
Packer George, cabinet maker
Parry A. R. Cloud’s Hill
Parslow A. greengrocer
Parsons George, farmer, Starveall
Parsons George, vict, King’s Head, Whitehall
Parsons James, registrar of births and deaths, Upper Easton
Peacock George, grocer
Pearce A. T. baker, Moorﬁelds
Pettygrove William grocer, Upper Bath road
Phipps Samuel, builder
Phipps T. builder, London road
Pincombe C. P. grocer, Lippiatt Lane
Police station, near the Fire Engine public house www.flickr.com/photos/20654194@N07/9871600173/
Pope F. C. newsvender
Pople Josiah, churchwarden
Powell James, market gardener, Upper Bath road
Prichard Henry, comb maker, Upper Easton
Prigg Caroline, beer retailer, Whitehall
Purday Thomas, tinman and earthenware dealer
Rees J. draper
Rees William, relieving ofﬁcer, Cloud’s Hill
Rogers Solomon, beer retailer
Riley R. grocer
Roach John, baker, Summer Hill
Roberts George, builder, Barton Hill
Roberts J. beer retailer
Roberts J. grocer
Robins H. grocer, Lippiatt Lane
Roe G. fruiterer
Rossiter W. C. butcher and grocer
Rouch J. baker, Moorﬁelds
Routley William, corn agent, Holmes
Sampson J. W. Devon house, Whitehall
Sandford, George, beer retailer
Scott George, beer retailer
Sealey John, nurseryman, seedsman, and ﬂorist
Shoat John J. Upper Bath road
Sheldon, Bush, & patent shot company, Blackswarth www.flickr.com/photos/20654194@N07/2132333773/
Shoard Edward, Whitehall
Sheppard A. fruiterer
Shum Capt. Thomas, Summer Hill
Skidmore Charles, grocer, Redﬁeld
Smith Benjamin, market gardener, Nag’s Head Hill www.flickr.com/photos/20654194@N07/2040321234/
Smith Charles, The World’s End
Smith John, beer retailer
Smith A. butcher
Smith George, beer retailer
Smith J. grocer, Upper Easton
Smith R. W. printer, Dundridge house
Smith W. French polisher
Spencer Rev. J. Redﬁeld
Stibbs Edwin, White’s Hill
Stibbs John, general contractor, Nag’s Head Hill
Stone and Tinson, manufacturers of chemicals, Crew’s Hole
Stone Martha, shopkeeper, Upper Bath road
Stone S. grocer, London road
Stone W. corn chandler and grocer
Stone W. grocer, Bell Hill
Sommerville Messrs. Bryant’s Hill
Taylor R. vict, Earl Russel, Russel Town
Taylor G. barge owner, Crews Hole
Taylor Thomas, oil and colour dealer
Thatcher William quarry master, White’s Hill www.flickr.com/photos/20654194@N07/10113258666/
Tilley James, maltster, Lower Easton
Trew J. W. surveyor
Trimm G. vict, Lamb Inn, Crews Hole
Tyler G. market gardener, Whitehall
Tyler S. market gardener, Whitehall
Underwood, E. W. Lyppiat Lane
Verrier A. G. tailor and draper
Vessey & Sons, pawnbrokers, Moorﬁelds
Vining H. earthenware dealer
Watkins Aaron, grocer
Watkins M. vict, Queen’s Head, Upper Easton
Watts I. marine store dealer
Watts William, baker
Watts W. grocer
Welsh H. glass dealer, Moorﬁelds
Whippie Jacob, tailor
Whitting C. beer retailer, Crews Hole
Whyatt J. farmer, Dundridge farm
Williams A. green grocer
Williams G. furniture broker
Wiltshire C. D. shopkeeper
Wiltshire George, grocer, Whitehall
Wiltshire I. bootmaker, Upper Bath road
Winne J. R. grocer, Moorﬁelds
Withers Alfred and Frederick, horse dealers, Summer Hill
Woodington Daniel, painter, etc
Woodington William, shoemaker
Woolland William, grocer, Rose Green
Young B. currier
Henry Wheeler – Described as ‘a boy’ in September 1884 when charged with stealing money from Charles Simmonds a grocer in Redfield.
George Saunders (b. 1815) In 1865 was aged 50 and of 8 Broad Plain, a labourer in the employ of Pritchard and Sons, comb manufacturers, Upper Easton, having been in the same employment for thirty years, He could neither read or write but that year received a £5 prize (a top prize) at the Bristol Industrial Exhibition for his entry in the Models and Designs class.
He designed his model of Stapleton Chuirch from paying frequent visits to the building and according to a newspaper report ‘made no plan, yet the building, tombstones, trees, walks etc are considered exactly as if viewing the church itself’. The model took seven years to construct.
William Sidney – Aged 13 in January 1836, working at Messrs Bayley and Co, lead smelters in Upper Easton. Died around 7 o’clock when the boiler exploded causing a stack of chimneys to fall down.
A witness stated that he saw Sidney in the ‘cave’ leading to the fireplace. He was almost covered in bricks, stones and wood and dreadfully scalded, but conscious. His father also called William heard the noise and ran up and was told that his son was all right and not much injured. He helped to take him to the infirmary.
William England, the engineer was alive but later died. He told the doctor at the infirmary that no-one was to blame for the accident, but others claimed that he had put too much pressure on the boiler, which had just been put back into service after a repair , which had meant it had been out of commission for some days
Charles Bryant – He lived at 4 Shrubbery Place, Whitehall. Injured in an explosion at Easton Colliery In February 1886, he died from the serious burns he received. He was 24 years old.
George Garjulo of 98 York Road, New Cut, worked at Strachan and Henshaw, Whitehall. In September 1912 he sustained concussion when he fell down and struck his head whilst carrying a large timber and was detained at the BRI. Henry Cullum aged 28 was charged with causing him grievous bodily harm.
Richard Cox – In 1883 he was employed at Netham Chemical Works as haulier. Kept 49 horses at that time.
Ann Crinks (d. 5th January 1793) Of Crew’s Hole, St George, age at death 73, buried in St Philip and Jacob graveyard.
Henry Flower – Lived at 2 Albert Street. St George. He was playing cricket in July 1885 when he was struck by a cricket ball which ruptured a vein.
Mr Harrison – In 1755 was owner of a field near St George which had a well in it. The water turned ‘black as ink’ for nearly a fortnight. The same phenomenon was experienced at the same time at Bristol Hotwell.
James Pole aged 18 in July 1878, his parents lived at Alfred Street, Victoria Road, St George. While working on a new house in Barton Hill he fell 20 feet from a ceiling joist and fractured his leg. He was taken to hospital.
Thomas Reed of Blackswarth Road, St George in 1899 when, aged 74 he committed suicide by shooting himself.
Printing the past: 3-D archaeology and the first Americans
Image by BLMOregon
Photos were captured at the Pacific Slope Archaeological Laboratory on the Oregon State University Campus in Corvallis, Dec. 13, 2016, to accompany the feature story below: "Printing the past: 3-D archaeology and the first Americans." Article online here (and below): goo.gl/viKEZF
Photo by Matt Christenson, BLM
Story by Toshio Suzuki, BLM
For the first Americans, and the study of them today, it all starts with a point.
A sharp point fastened to a wooden shaft gave the hunter 13,000 years ago a weapon that could single-handedly spear a fish or work in numbers to take down a mammoth.
For a prehistoric human, these points were the difference between life and death. They were hunger-driven, handmade labors of love that took hours to craft using a cacophony of rock-on-rock cracks, thuds and shatters.
They have been called the first American invention, and some archaeologists now think 3-D scanning points can reveal more information about both the technology and the people.
The Pacific Slope Archaeological Laboratory at Oregon State University takes up only a few rooms on the ground floor of Waldo Hall, one of the supposedly haunted buildings on campus.
There are boxes of cultural history everywhere, and floor-to-ceiling wood cabinets with skinny pull-out drawers housing even more assets, but the really good stuff, evidence of the earliest known cultures in North America, lives in an 800-pound gun safe.
Loren Davis, anthropology professor at OSU and director of the lab, thinks 3-D scanning, printing, and publishing can circumvent the old traditions of the field, that artifacts are only to be experienced in museums and only handled by those who have a Ph.D.
“We are reimagining the idea of doing archaeology in a 21st century digital way,” said Davis. “We don’t do it just to make pretty pictures or print in plastic, we mostly want to capture and share it for analysis,” he added.
Nearby in the L-shaped lab, one of his doctoral students is preparing to scan a point that was discovered on Bureau of Land Management public lands in southeast Oregon.
Thousands of points have been unearthed since the 1930s in North America, the first being in eastern New Mexico near a town called Clovis. That name is now known worldwide as representing the continent’s first native people.
More recently, though, other peoples with distinctive points were found elsewhere, and some researchers think it means there was differing technology being made at the same time, if not pre-Clovis.
One such location is the Paisley Caves in southern Oregon ― one of the many archaeologically significant sites managed by the BLM.
The earliest stem point from Paisley Caves was scanned at Davis’ lab and a 3-D PDF was included in a 2012 multi-authored report in the journal Science.
Davis estimates his lab at OSU has scanned as many as 400 points, including others from BLM-managed lands in Idaho, Nevada, Oregon and Washington.
More scans would mean a bigger database for comparing points and determining what style they are.
“Ideally, we want to get as many artifacts scanned as possible,“ said Davis. “The BLM offers a lot of access to public data ― this is just another way of doing it.”
Transforming a brittle piece of volcanic glass, by hand, into a beautiful and deadly 4-inch-long spear point is a process.
In one hand would be a hard shaping rock, or maybe a thick section of antler, and in the other would be the starter stone, which in addition to igneous could be jasper, chert, or any other chippable rock that creates a hide-puncturing level of sharpness.
After what might be hundreds of controlled strokes and rock rotations, the rough shape of a lance or spear tip would take form. Discarded shards of stone would often result in more points, or other useful tools like scrapers and needles.
Clovis points are distinguished by their length, bifacial leaf shape and middle channels on the bottom called flutes. Eventually the repetitive flaking of the point would stop, and the hunter would use precise pressure points to create the flute on one or each side that likely helped slot the finished product into a spear-like wooden pole.
The hunter was now mobile and ready to roam.
Prior to 3-D scanning, OSU doctoral student Sean Carroll picks up a can of Tinactin, gives it the obligatory shake, and completely covers “one of the oldest technologies in North America” with antifungal spray.
The talc and alcohol from the athlete’s foot remedy helps the software see even the slightest indents in the point, and it rubs right off afterwards.
“I want to scan all the Clovis I can get my hands on,” said Carroll, who came to OSU because of Davis’ 3-D lab and is using the medium as a big part of his dissertation.
Two random items, a power plug adapter and a ball of clay, are placed on each side of the fluted point to give the camera and light projector perspective. The objects create margins that force the structured light patterns to bend and capture more of the point’s surface detail.
Even so, like the hunter rotating the shaping rock, the archaeologist has to rotate the foam square holding the three items. Each scan takes about six seconds.
Carroll and Davis estimate that the learning curve for this process was about 100 hours. One hundred hours of trial and error — and a lot of watching YouTube videos — for a finished product that they think is indisputably worth it.
A completed 3-D scan of a point will have about 40,000 data points per square inch. The measurements are so precise, they can determine the difference between flake marks as thin as a piece of paper.
Davis says no archaeologist with a pair of calipers can come close to measuring the data obtained via 3-D, because simply, “there are some jobs that robots are really good at.”
“If the end game is measurements, well you could spend your whole life with a pair of calipers trying to achieve what we can do in 10 minutes,” said Davis.
Last year, the famous human relative nicknamed Lucy had 3-D scans of her 3.2 million year old bones published in the journal Nature.
In 2015, archaeologists from Harvard University completed a 3-D scan of a winged and human-headed stone bull from Mesopotamia that stands 13 feet high at the Louvre Museum.
And the Smithsonian Institution is currently beta testing a website dedicated to publishing 3-D models from its massive collection, including molds of President Abraham Lincoln’s face and the entire Apollo 11 command module.
All of these new-school efforts are based upon the old-school scientific principles of preservation and promotion.
Rock points, fossils, hieroglyphics — various forms of cultural assets are susceptible to environmental conditions and not guaranteed to be around forever. Three-dimensional scanning is the most accurate way to digitally preserve these items of merit.
Once accurate preservation is done, there are opportunities for promoting not just science, but specific research goals.
In the case of the Lucy bones, scientists hope that crowdsourcing the 3-D data will help get more experts to look at the fossils and prove that the tree-dwelling ape died from a fall.
When it comes to comparing one specific stemmed point to an entire hard drive of scanning data, BLM archaeologist Scott Thomas thinks the work being done at the OSU lab can move archaeology to a new level.
“The 3-D scanning method blows anything we have done out of the water,” said Thomas.
That ability to compare points can lead to insights on how these hunting tools moved over geography, and even expand theories about how native groups learned new technologies.
“It’s going to be a really powerful tool someday — not too far off,” said Thomas.
While long-term data analysis may not be the sexiest form of archaeology, holding a 3-D printed stem point is a pretty cool educational tool.
Davis of OSU has incorporated 3-D prints into his classes and said his students are able to make a tactile connection with artifacts that otherwise are not available.
“The students really enjoy these printed and digital models and often say that they are almost like the real thing,” said Davis.
This spring, Davis is traveling to Magadan, Russia — aka Siberia — to inspect and scan some points that may be linked to Clovis peoples.
The goal in Siberia, of course, is to further expand the 3-D database. He is specifically interested in comparing them to stems from a BLM-managed site he excavated in Idaho called Cooper’s Ferry.
As his student, Carroll, begins to clean up and put the scanned points into their individually labeled ziplocked bags, Davis can’t help but mention how much easier international research could be with 3-D scanning.
“You can share cultural resource info with people in other countries and you don’t have to come visit,” he said, adding that Russia isn’t the easiest country to enter.
“It’s as easy as sending an email,” Carroll agreed.
Davis then mentioned his 11-year-old child and how much of school curriculum these days is web-based as opposed to text-based.
“There’s nothing wrong with books, I’m a huge fan of books, but it’s a different way of learning,” said the archaeology professor.
And with that, he made another point.
— by Toshio Suzuki, firstname.lastname@example.org, @toshjohn
Best places to find 3-D archaeology online:
— Sketchfab.com is one of the biggest databases on the web for 3-D models of cultural assets. Institutions and academics alike are moving priceless treasures to the digital space for all to inspect. Two examples: via the British Museum, a 7.25-ton statue of Ramesses II is available for viewing and free download; and via archaeologist Robert Selden Jr., hundreds of 3-D models are open to the public for study, including several Clovis points from the Blackwater Draw National Historic Site in New Mexico.
— The Smithsonian Institution is bringing the best of American history to a new audience via their 3-D website (3d.si.edu). Amelia Earhart’s flight suit? Check. Native American ceremonial killer whale hat? Check. Face cast of President Abraham Lincoln? Check and check — there are two. And their biggest 3-D scan is still coming: the 184-foot-long space shuttle Discovery.
— Visitors to Africanfossils.org can filter 3-D model searches by hominids, animals and tools, and also by date, from zero to 25 million years ago.
The sleek website, with partners like National Geographic and the National Museums of Kenya, makes it easy to download or share 3-D scans, and each item even comes with a discovery backstory and Google map pinpointing exactly where it was found.