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Phantoms in the Gulf of Tonkin

Until 1964, Vietnam was not a U.S. war.

Sure, the U.S. had sent 400 special forces to train South Vietnamese troops in 1961. And more troops were sent to police the country in 1963. And every now and again U.S. newspapers printed photos of Buddhist monks setting themselves on fire in public.

But, even the threat of Communism toppling regimes like dominoes wasn’t good enough to sell a full-blown war. Until August 2…

The Rush to War

On August 2, 1964, three North Vietnamese torpedo boats attacked a U.S. destroyer, the USS Maddox. The boats reportedly fired torpedoes at the U.S. ship in international waters in the Gulf of Tonkin, about thirty miles off the Vietnam coast.

On August 4, the U.S. Navy reported another unprovoked attack on the USS Maddox and the USS Turner Joy.

Within hours, President Lyndon B. Johnson ordered a retaliatory strike. As the bases for North Vietnamese torpedo boats were bombed, Johnson went on TV and told America: “Repeated acts of violence against the armed forces of the United States must be met not only with alert defense, but with a positive reply. That reply is being given as I speak tonight.”

The next day, Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara testified. He assured Capital Hill that the Maddox had only been “carrying out a routine mission of the type we carry out all over the world at all times.” McNamara said the two boats were in no way involved with recent South Vietnamese boat raids against North Vietnamese targets.

At Johnson’s request, Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution. The resolution preapproved any military actions Johnson would take. It gave Johnson a free ticket to wage war in Vietnam as large as the President wanted. And, true to his large Texas roots, Johnson got a big war: by 1969, over half a million U.S. troops were fighting in Indochina.

The Phantom Attack

Despite McNamara’s testimony to the contrary, the USS Maddox had been providing intelligence support to South Vietnamese boats carrying out raids against North Vietnam. McNamara had also testified that there was “unequivocable proof” of an “unprovoked” second attack against the USS Maddox. In fact, the second attack never occurred at all.

At the time of the second incident, the two U.S. destroyers misinterpreted radar and radio signals as attacks by the North Vietnamese navy. It’s now known that no North Vietnamese boats were in the area. So, for two hours, the two U.S. destroyers blasted away at nonexistent radar targets, and vigorously maneuvered to avoid phantom North Vietnamese ships.

Even though the second “attack” only involved two U.S. ships defending themselves against a nonexistent enemy, the President and Secretary of Defense used it to coerce Congress and the American people to start a war they neither wanted or needed.

The War Powers Resolution

After the Vietnam War turned into a quagmire for the U.S., Congress decided to put limits on the President’s authority to unilaterally wage war. Thus, on November 7, 1973, Congress overturned President Nixon’s veto and passed the War Powers Resolution.

The resolution requires the President to consult with Congress before making any decisions that engage the U.S. military in hostilities. It’s still in effect to this day.

“If we quit Vietnam, tomorrow we’ll be fighting in Hawaii and next week we’ll have to fight in San Francisco.” ~Lyndon B. Johnson.

“We are fighting these terrorists with our military in Afghanistan and Iraq and beyond so we do not have to face them in the streets of our own cities.” ~President George W. Bush.

Same tune, different song…

copyright©2007 Joe Crubaugh

Joe Crubaugh is a freelance writer whose psyche is often absorbed with current events, politics, art, culture, society, and the creamy bitterness of a steaming cup of white chocolate mocha. He is the author of numerous personal emails, and on most days he blogs at Hard-boiled Dreams of the World. When he’s not writing, Joe spends weekdays masquerading as a software consultant in an undisclosed Southeastern U.S. state.

3 Reasons to Visit Grand Bend

Grand Bend also commonly know as “the Bend” or “GB” is a community located on the shores of Lake Huron in Southern Ontario. This town is a popular tourist destination thanks to it’s great beaches and lively night life.

The year round population hovers around the 2 000 mark, but summer weekends see that number swell to something more like 50 000. The summer party atmosphere has earned The Bend a reputation of being Florida North.

If you make the trip down, make sure to check out:

1. The Motorplex: Grand Bend’s Motorplex is Canada’s largest multi use motorsports facility. It features a record breaking dragstrip as well as 2 competitive motocross tracks. The dragstrip plays host to Canada’s largest and oldest National Drag Race.

People often make race days into race weekends. The Motorplex includes an onsite motorhome area and campground that are packed with revelers during the long weekends. If gas fumes and loud powerful motors are your thing – there are few places better in all the country to get your fix than Grand Bend’s Motorplex

2. The Beach: With it’s climate and rocky nature, Canada isn’t exactly world renown for it’s beaches. Grand Bend is the exception to the norm, as it is well known for it’s great beach areas. It is part of the “West Coast of Ontario” which is home to hundreds of miles of open beach.

The shores of Lake Huron are beautiful – the white sands and blue water will make you think you took a vacation far south of the border. Long weekends find the beaches full of sunbathers and swimmers. It is a lively and fun atmosphere. Currently, Grand Bend is working on a Beach Enhancement project that will make their beach area even cleaner, more natural and add more family space.

3. The Wexford Shipwreck: The Wexford was a steel hulled freighter from Great Britain. It was hauling steel beams in the Great Lakes when it was caught in the legendary Great Lakes Storm of 1913. This storm, also known as the “Big Blow”, was a blizzard with hurricane level winds. It raged for three days and was responsible for the deaths of 250 people and the destruction of 19 ships.

The Wexford was found in 2000, 87 years after the huge storm. It is located off the shores of Grand Bend – it is about 75 feet under water. That makes for an intermediate level scuba dive. Curious scuba divers have been coming to Grand Bend to get a look at this sunken ship which is still fully intact.

Grand Bend is a rapidly growing community – it is no wonder why. From quiet unassuming small town in winter, “GB” transforms into trendy tourist destination in the summer. The town caters to tourists with interesting attractions like museums and quality dining.

The Motorplex assures that big name talent will continue coming to entertain Grand Bend and the Beach Enhancement project will make sure the town keeps it’s Florida North feel.

For more info on Southwestern Ontario towns – Ontario

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World Of Online Flash Games

Online flash games give a a lot greater expertise then you’d ever before think about about them. The cause is incredibly basic. Online flash games are totally free, really enjoyable and straightforward, they don’t call for you to get High-Tech laptop or computer or high-priced gaming consoles. They just price you small funds for getting a World wide web connection.

Online flash games are most well-liked amongst kids and children but normally you are able to come across also adults playing them. Youngsters can come across on their own enthusiastic about coloring and dress-up games, although children appreciate bike and automobile driving games and different arcades, whilst adults will just adore all of the billiards, cards, puzzles and logic games rather than to overlook all of the traditional remakes like Super Mario, Pacman and so forth.

Big guys observed that and right now we are able to see a blooming enterprise produced of on-line sport internet sites, earning massive quantity of dollars by means of promoting promoting. This also produces place for individuals that really make these games as they may also generate cash via sponsorship which makes it possible for folks to integrate their advertisements or banners inside of games. Total its massive dollars bussiness nowadays.

So exactly where to begin playing? Properly you might kind online flash games or some thing like that in Google,Bing or Yahoo or what ever search engine you choose, or you may log-in to 1 of social bookmarking internet sites and see what folks suggest there. As soon as you come across your preferred internet site you’ll be able to select kind of games (motion, arcade, logic, puzzle and so forth.) and commence playing. Thrust me these games might be a genuine time killer, even when they dont appear like that occasionally.

Inside the finish, the globe of online flash games is thrilling, providing you continuous enjoyable and enjoyment. They are able to preserve you massive quantity of dollars and supply you with significantly far more than you may actually believe they could. Have enjoyable time playing them!

Author is owner of

A Super Stylish and Super Automatic Espresso Machine

Do you might have to visit a coffee shop every single time you want to have your favorite cup of sizzling and steamy cappuccino? Have you at any time imagined when you 
could get the same cup of espresso inside the comfort of your residence with out placing significantly of an energy into it?

The Saeco Vienna SuperAutomatica espresso machine is completely created to create espresso and espresso drinks at house at the push of a button.

Saeco, a well-liked Italian model is globe famous for making the most effective espresso espresso and cappuccino machines worldwide.

This espresso espresso and cappuccino machine has become created maintaining in thoughts the comfort of espresso lovers. It’s create with sturdy internal components and 
functions a gleaming, marble-gray plastic exterior which provides smooth and appealing style that’s person friendly and uncomplicated to clean.

To be able to create a cup of coffee all you should do is fill the h2o tank and fill coffee beans into the compartment within the best after which push the button. The machine 
routinely grinds the beans therefore brewing a cup of sizzling espresso in minutes.
Some of the extraordinary functions of your espresso espresso and cappuccino machine from Saeco are that it grinds, doses, tamps, brews and dispenses contemporary and 
top quality espresso at all times.

You can put together up to two cups of coffee and at the exact same time it permits you to determine how strong or light you want your coffee to be and also the quantity of 
that coffee in the contact of a button.

It arrives having a best exactly where you are able to place your cups to warm them up together with a conical burr grinder all of which may be programmed by basically 
pressing a couple of a lot more buttons.

One of the most attractive features of this machine is its removable brewing internal method which can make for easy disassembling and cleansing.

Using the Saeco Vienna SuperAutomatica Espresso Espresso and Cappuccino Machine you are able to appreciate a freshly brewed, fragrant wealthy cup of espresso at any 
time with the day, as per your specifications and within minutes.

If you’re planning to acquire an espresso machine make sure that a espresso espresso and cappuccino machine from Saeco is in the top of your list.

In some cases a lot more automation implies additional probabilities for things to go wrong, but this simply isn’t the case with the Saeco and you may buy this model with full 
confidence in its ability. The Saeco Vienna SuperAutomatica espresso machine really is 1 of probably the most automated coffee machines on the market on the market. Give 
it a attempt.


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The Super Amazing Super Automated Espresso Machine

At the the top rated from the list of types of espresso makers will be the “super automatic espresso machine”. I could even go to date as to suggest that they rename the 
class the “super-awesome super automated espresso machine”.

1 Touch Ease of Operation

These machines really are automated. Right right after it is initial programming it’ll brew an espresso custom produced for your personal style specs, automatically, in the 
touch of a button. It will grind your selection of fresh-roasted coffee beans; it will pre-measure your floor espresso; it’ll tamp the grounds just as they ought to be tamped; it 
heats the h2o to just the temperatures that you like your espresso to become; it will extract the exact volume of water to be utilized in brewing; after which it will brew a 
perfect cup of espresso or coffee–just the way you like it. Wait–there’s far more: the used espresso grounds will then be moved to your utilized grounds dump box! All 

Save a Ton of Cash as an At-Home Barista!

Additional and much more espresso-drink lovers are getting to be progressively conscientious of your value of paying for their daily fix (occasionally 2X daily) and are 
selecting to turn out to be do-it-yourself espresso makers. While coffee lovers increasingly desire to save dollars on their daily caffeine habit, they’re not prepared to abandon 
their favorite nearby coffee bars to get a homemade espresso drink which is only an imitation in the real thing. Dilemma? Not any a lot more. Today’s substantial tech, 
superbly engineered, and well-crafted European espresso machines give the DIY house barista the instruments that they need to create espresso drinks each and every bit as 
good–no a lot much better!–than what they utilized to shell out $ 4 or extra for.

You will discover plenty and a lot of super automatic espresso machines on the market these days, produced by lots of diverse companies, but top quality and cost vary quite 
a bit. This can outcome in a little bit of confusion when you are attempting to choose the best machine for your spending budget and for the individual wants.

Following is really a short summary of features that may well be found on an espresso machine that fall into the “super automatic” class:

Water Quantity Control

This function permits you to select the exact quantity of h2o that you have to make both a shot of espresso or possibly a cup of coffee.


This programmable perform will start grinding beans and moving them to your brew group so they are prepared for that subsequent shot.

Moistening the Floor Coffee Grounds Prior to Brewing

This function will slightly pre-moisten the grounds just prior to brewing. This leads to the fragrant and flavorful oils to begin coming out of the coffee.

Temperature Handle

When you like your espresso piping hot then it is possible to get it piping sizzling! This feature enables you to serve your espresso beverages at your favored optimum 

Adjustable Dosing

This operate will allow you to handle the taste and strength of one’s drink by increasing or lowering the quantity of floor used inside a shot.


If you would like to buy the Best Espresso Machine,we could recommend you visit our site at a new age automatic espresso machine or read our post about the best espresso machine maker for you

Winstrol Stanozolol Super Remedy or Super Mistake

Two forms of Winstrol Stanozolol
There are two forms of Winstrol Stanozolol available, oral and injectable also called Depot. The injectable version of Winstrol Stanozolol is considered more safer and more effective than the oral version. But in comparison with other injectable steroids Depot has to be injected more frequently as it is water dissolved. Another reason why Winstrol Stanozolol Depot is preferred over oral is that it doesn’t easily convert into estrogen hormones, this process is called aromatization. This reduces the chances of developing gynecomastia, and also water retention is kept to a minimum. This characteristics make Winstrol Stanozolol popular bodybuilding medications.

The risks
Like all oral steroids oral Winstrol Stanozolol is damaging to the liver. For those who do decide to use oral Winstrol Stanozolol tablets, we strongly recomend to have a physician supervision on liver with regular blood tests. But there is possibility of developing liver problems, cannot be excluded from the injectable versions of the drug.
It should also be noted that both versions of Winstrol Stanozolol have been linked to significant changes in cholesterol levels. This negative effect is common with steroids in general – even medical therapy – so it can become a health concern if the individual stays on the drug for extended periods of time.

Before Use
Stanozolol is not some super wonder bodybuilding steroid that is risk free. In fact the risks are significant and you should definitely think twice before use. With all the risks associated with Winstrol and other anabolic steroids, bodybuilders should check out the various steroid alternatives that are available. Bodybuilders are reporting that many of these products are just as powerful and just as effective at promoting fat loss as their illegal and potentially dangerous cousins.

Where to buy Winstrol Stanozolol
Because Winstrol Stanozolol needs to be injected daily or every second day, Winstrol Stanozolol can become one of the more expensive anabolic steroids to use. proposes to buy Winstrol Stanozolol online. is the safest and fastest way to buy Winstrol Stanozolol and other anabolic steroids on competitive, cheap prices from trustable steroid pharmacy. To buy Winstrol Stanozolol visit


Google Chrome – New Dimensions Towards Browsing

Google gave a new definition of browsing after launching their stunning browser called Google Chrome. It made a blast after its release, Chrome provided new dimensions of browsing and surfing the internet towards its users. The Browser was publicly launched on 2 September 2008, in 42 different languages; Chrome is having a simple but unique layout.

Google provided the ever best features in chrome since we ever had seen in any browser there are a lot of features which are unavailable in other browsers such as IE and Firefox but they are found in Google Chrome and users never knew about them before the launch of browser. It is more efficient in different aspects such as security, speed, bookmarks, downloading and safe browsing.

Chrome is a reliable browser for all kind of internet users. Its reliable internal download manager saves files only in one folder called “Downloads” in “My Documents” and does not create a mess. In other browsers you have to find the folder where the downloaded content is placed. Speed dial system in chrome shows 9 most visited thumbnails to you when you open the browser. On the right side of newly opened tab you can find out the recent bookmarks and recently closed tabs. Moving and placing tabs were never so easy before the launch of Chrome. User can drag a tab and open that in a new window and can drag a new tab from another window into your current working window of Google Chrome web browser.

Crash Control of Google chrome is totally different from other browsers. Every tab runs in its own “sandbox”. Bookmarks are used extensively in this era to save the websites which user like to visit mostly. Users can import bookmarks from Firefox into the new browser. So these and many other ultimate features can be only found in this browser.

Check out the newly browser called Google Chrome
Google chrome features & review Google chrome

Pocket Folder Printing – Bringing New Dimensions To Your Marketing Program

Whenever you visit a client or attend any seminar for the promotion of your business, you are delighted to receive a pocket folder. It happens because you are treated as a reputed client or member of that organization. It not only makes you intimate towards that company, but also gives an impression of the level of professionalism. So, an elegant folder can really help you out in the real promotion of the business. Designing beautiful folders has become a vital part of the print industry and thus helping the ventures in promoting their business goals and other fundamentals for a better tomorrow.

Printed folders are one of the effective marketing tools that reinforce your tag. It is because it contains your name, and your company’s name & logo. These folders can be easily made, with the help of the professionals, and further helps you practically in the organization of the business proposals. Moreover it can also carry the company or service literature, press kits, and other handouts.

* How to make your folder print better?

* Use of innovative designs acts as the primary tool for making the pocket folder look attractive. Functionality is the prime key to make the folders look more attractive and user-friendly.

* Selection of a good and experienced printing organization can ease your task. You need to search various designs and layouts and further look or offer the samples for a unique one. Once the designer makes the layout clear, they upload your design file for the rest of the printing process.

* You should be very specific about the size. The proportion of the length and the width can be discussed prior to the print job. The use of fine textures and good graphics will always compliment the pocket folders. Once the client finds it interesting, they will keep it with them for a longer duration. Otherwise, it would be dumped.

An attractive folder speaks in favor of the company and their representatives. So, it becomes vital for us to develop a design that defines the unique style and professionalism. Pocket folder printing has gained a subsequent rise in the present digital print industry. So, you should care for some of the necessary tips while developing these pocket folders for your clients and intimates.

Pocket folders come in wide varieties. There may be different sizes and fit for a definite purpose with a subtle message. These folders are safe and useful to carry. They act as a creative agent to develop relations with the clients and narrate your missions in the best manner. So, to give the best results, you should research upon the techniques of pocket folder printing and make the best impression in front of the clients.

The next time when you start to promote your business or services make sure you do a comprehensive study about the printing services. A perfect color combination with specific concept can highlight your pocket folders to an interesting one. Thanks to the various pocket folders print service shops who offer attractive designs and choices it has become easy to make effective presentation and marketing. Usage of attractive pocket folders is done by numerous businesses, highlighting their professionalism in a true manner.

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Sale on Legos – Plane Lego

Probably the most well-liked and reliable toy companies around is Lego. For a few decades, it entertains kids while teaching them problem solving skills, imagination, and creativity. A bunch of different play sets are now offered which provides you with a range of selections you do not have with any other toy.

Lego’s strength is its simplicity. Among others, Lego has elaborate models for putting together a complex moon-lander or a pirate ship. The most fun though you get from using the good old multi-purpose bricks to build virtually everything over and over again.

You can also get separate sets of bricks to make your individual models or to add to the versions you have already. It is not possible to get disappointed. Even though you are bored once building one set, you can just build something new quickly.

New bricks are as colorful as the originals although they are bigger in size. One of the best thing is the blocks could be used with any sets as they are the same. Your child can utilize these bricks through his live.

As a result of the plain design and basic concept of building things using colorful blocks, Lego sets are an excellent idea for kids of all ages.

The pre-cursors to Lego models are Duplos. Kids whose fine motor skills are not yet developed enough to deal with the smaller pieces can use Duplo sets absolutely well. They are also safer if you have kids who yet put things in their mouth.

Lego is not the lowest priced toy on the market. However in the long term, it will be probably the very best investment in toys you will make. The bricks will survive long time since they are practically unbreakable and hold you child’s interest for years.

Frequently on line you can order Lego models for less money than, including many popular models like star wars, batman, spongeBob, harry potter, and spiderman. Plus delivery is often free. You can get many wonderful and really popular models on sale now.

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The Passion of Defense Games

Nowadays the passion of defense games is getting increased day by day. That is why everyone is busy in playing defense games online. There are lots of valuable and meaningful defense games out there which are commonly known as Body Defense, Tower Defense World War 1, Epic War, Crush The Castle, Anti TD, I Will Survive, 1945 War, Epic War 4, Epic War 3, Action Game, and the huge list goes on and on. Defense games are the most intriguing, thrilling, compatible, user friendly, enthuses, dedicated, and self motivated games online, catching your eyes beyond your imaginations. Defense games have been in essence designed by the world’s most genius engineers and designers artistically. That is why there is no match of defence games. If you want to play defense games online, you will have to get connected with your most popular tower defense games industry online so as to get a huge entertainment for lifetime. 
Defense games are extremely inimitable and inspired games. That is why your own defense games have large numbers of commendable features i.e. breathtaking, stunning, stimulating, competitive, full of life, and animated games. That is why tower defense games very schmaltzy, compassionate and entertaining games at all. Tower defense games have many astounding themes and concepts, catching your eyes beyond your imagination. Moreover tower defence games are in fact amongst your best friends at the moment. That is why defense games not only bring a huge laughter on your faces but also trim down your depression steadily. Also strategy games are very tactful and provocative games, catching your eyes beyond your imagination. Today defense games your most practical games. The eventual objective of tower defence is to make you available a long term enjoyment. With the help of tower defense games, you would be hence immediately able to get a huge enjoyment for long time. 
Tower defence games are worldwide games because they are laughable and pleasurable games. One of the most fantastic features of tower defence is that it releases your all sorts of agony and stress forever. That is why defense games are truly your most adoring games today. In addition to playing defense games, you can also play many other types of games online for getting your long term enjoyment for example action games, puzzle games, jigsaw puzzles, kids games, adult games, girl kissing games, hidden object games, and many others. All of them are very stirring, stimulating, animated, and self motivated games, catching your eyes beyond the imagination. That is why online defense games industry offers you cheap defense games worldwide in a most practical and dedicated manner.

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